After the Second World War, the focus of psychology was on treating abnormal behaviors and the resulting mental illnesses. Dissatisfied with this approach, humanist psychologists, such as Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Eric Fromm helped renew interest in the more positive aspects of human nature.
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Inspiration in a Bed of Roses
The story of Seligman’s epiphany in his rose garden which started the movement of positive psychology has become somewhat a folk legend. This is how the story goes:
Seligman’s daughter, who was 5 at the time, had been trying to get her father’s attention when he turned around and snapped at her. Unhappy with this response, his daughter asked him whether or not he remembered how she used to whine when she was 3 and 4?
She told him that when she turned 5 she decided to stop – and if she was able to stop whining, then he was able to stop being a grouch!
This revelation of developing what was right, rather than fixating on what was wrong, sparked what Seligman would go on to promote during his career as APA president. The message that we should be teaching our children and ourselves to look at our strengths rather than our weaknesses (Seligman M & Csikszentmihalyi, M, 2000).
Positive psychology can be viewed as the “fourth wave” in the evolution of psychology, the first 3 waves being, respectively, the disease model, behaviorism and humanistic psychology.
This approach contrasts with how, in its early years (the second half the 19th century, and the first half of the 20th), the practice of psychology focused mainly on cure and treatment of psychic ailments, which is a decidedly negative focus.
This orientation is undoubtedly important and useful, and is associated with some of greatest names in the field such as Freud, Adler and Jung. Over time however, psychology began to acquire a negative outlook and stereotype, with its focus on the darkest chambers of the human mind, with the near total exclusion of its sunlit highlands.
Positive psychology, as the name suggests, is psychology with a positive orientation. It does not imply that the rest of psychology is unhelpful or all negative and in fact, the term “psychology as usual” has been coined to denote the rest of psychology.
The Four Waves of Psychology
The 1st Wave: The Disease Model
During the second half of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th, psychology was concerned with curing mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and human complexes of various kinds (inferiority, power, electra, oedipus, other). And why not? There has always been, and will perhaps always be, a significant incidence of mental illness in all communities, irrespective of race or religion, caste or creed.
The attempt of psychologists to cure these ailments was quite natural and laudable, and the work of early psychologists, such as Sigmund Freud, Adler, and Carl Jung was indeed very effective. (Note: It must be added here that of these 3 pioneers, the big 3 of Vienna as they were called, Carl Jung was perhaps the earliest psychologist to recognize, and be troubled by, psychology’s negative focus).
Over time, this disease focus pushed psychology towards the dark recesses of the human mind and away from the deeper well-springs of human energy and potential. As highlighted by Martin Seligman, in his 2008 TED talk on Positive Psychology, the negative focus of psychology resulted in three major drawbacks for the field:
- Firstly, psychologists became victimologists and pathologizers (they forgot that people make choices, and have responsibility).
- Secondly, they forgot about improving normal lives and high talent (the mission to make relatively untroubled people happier, more fulfilled, more productive), and,
- Thirdly, in their rush to repair damage, it never occurred to them to develop interventions to make people happier.
The 2nd Wave: Behaviorism
B. F. Skinner of Harvard University, was the originator, along with John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov, of the behavioral approach in psychology. Skinner believed that free will was an illusion, and human behavior was largely dependent on the consequences of our previous actions.
If a particular behavior attracted the right type of reinforcement, it had a high probability of being repeated, and if, on the other hand, the behavior resulted in punishment, it had a good chance of not being repeated (Schacter, Daniel L., and Gilbert Daniel, 2011).
Skinner believed that, given the right structure of rewards and punishments, human behavior could be totally modified, in an almost mechanical sense.
This theory undoubtedly has a lot of merits, particularly the idea of operant conditioning, with its relevance to the workplace and the home, in terms of influencing and eliciting desired behavior, through a well-conceived reward system. But Skinner’s total rejection of free will is still disturbing.
It goes against all that human history stands for – the ultimate, and enduring triumph of the human spirit against overwhelming odds. Also, his idea of behavior modification, meaning the manipulation of behavior through properly structured rewards, is open to gross abuse by autocrats and dictators, in terms of oppressing their subjects. And not just in society at large, but in the workplace as well. J E R Staddon and Noam Choksy were among Skinner’s major critics (Staddon, J., 1995; Chomsky, Noam 1959).
Criticisms of his theory notwithstanding, Skinner stands tall — a brilliant Harvard psychologist and prolific writer, with 21 books and 180 articles to his credit, and whom in a 2002 survey, was voted the most influential psychologist of the twentieth century (Haggbloom, Steven J. et. al, 2002).
The 3rd Wave: Humanistic Psychology
This wave is known for its two major strands of thought – existentialist psychology (Soren Kierkegaard, Jean Paul Sartre) and humanistic psychology (Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers).
According to Sartre, every human being is responsible for working out his identity and his life’s meaning, through the interaction between himself and his surroundings. No one else can do it for him, least of all a non-existent God. For this reason, meaning is something truly unique to each person – separate and independent (Jean-Paul Sartre, 1946).
One cannot quarrel with this strand of thought, particularly the responsibility of the individual for his own destiny, but the underlying atheism is dampening. What about people who cannot find their identity and their life’s meaning on their own?
Uncontrollable anxiety would be inevitable, particularly in the absence of faith in a supernatural being, an idea rejected by existentialism. This anxiety is recognized in psychotherapy as “existential anxiety” and has been of major therapeutic concern of many leading psychologists, particularly Victor Frankl, the originator of logo-therapy.
There is a considerable divergence of views on the question of “What is life’s meaning?” and, clearly, each one needs to work it out for himself, with his own unique experience and surroundings. Here is a very thoughtful quote from Kierkegaard, arguably the earliest exponent of existentialism,
“What I really need is to get clear about what I must do, not what I must know, except insofar as knowledge must precede every act. What matters is to find a purpose, to see what it really is that God wills that I shall do; the crucial thing is to find a truth which is truth for me, to find the idea for which I am willing to live and die. (…) I certainly do not deny that I still accept an imperative of knowledge and that through it men may be influenced, but then it must come alive in me, and this is what I now recognize as the most important of all” (Kierkegaard, Soren, 1962).
The humanistic movement was about adding a holistic dimension to psychology. Humanistic psychologists believed that our behavior was determined by our perception of the world around us and its meanings, we are not the sole product of our environment or biochemistry, and that we are internally influenced and motivated to fulfill our human potential.
Humanistic psychology emphasizes the inherent human drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one’s own capabilities and creativity. This approach rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in response to the limitations of the disease model in fulfilling the human desire for actualization and a life of meaning (Benjafield, John G., 2010).
The 5 basic principles or postulates of humanistic psychology are:
- Human beings, as human, supersede the sum of their parts. They cannot be reduced to components.
- Human beings have their existence in a uniquely human context, as well as in a cosmic ecology.
- Human beings are aware and are aware of being aware – i.e., they are conscious. Human consciousness always includes an awareness of oneself in the context of other people.
- Human beings have the ability to make choices and therefore have responsibility.
- Human beings are intentional, they aim at goals, are aware that they cause future events, and seek meaning, value, and creativity.
It is hard to miss the significant foundation that the humanistic approach has provided for positive psychology.
The 4th Wave: Positive Psychology
As already pointed out earlier in this article, positive psychology is psychology with a positive orientation, concerned with authentic happiness and the good life.
Humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow maintained that psychology itself does not have an accurate understanding of human potential and that the field tends to raise the proverbial bar not high enough with respect to maximum attainment.
“The science of psychology has been far more successful on the negative than on the positive side; it has revealed to us much about man’s shortcomings, his illnesses, his sins, but little about his potentialities, his virtues, his achievable aspirations, or his full psychological height. It is as if psychology had voluntarily restricted itself to only half its rightful jurisdiction, and that the darker, meaner half” (Maslow, 1954, p. 354).
While the previous waves of psychology focused on human flaws, overcoming deficiencies, avoiding pain, and escape from unhappiness, positive psychology, focuses on well-being, contentment, excitement, cheerfulness, the pursuit of happiness and meaning in life.
The humanistic movement wanted to look at what drives us to want to grow and achieve fulfillment, however, even though their conceptual ideas of human nature did influence the development of positive psychology, they are separate. While the humanistic approach used more qualitative methods, positive psychology is developing a more scientific epistemology of understanding human beings.
Psychology may, at last, be converging into the quintessence of the world’s great religions. It may finally be discovering that the key to human evolution lies in a fine blend of the mind and the spirit. It may, at last, be recognizing and accepting the dark chambers of the human mind as well as its sunlit highlands. So who are the passionate visionaries behind this fourth wave of psychology? Let’s find out…
The 5 Founding Fathers: Developing Positive Psychology
In 1998, Martin Seligman was elected President of the American Psychological Association and it was then that Positive Psychology became the theme of his term as president. He is widely seen as the father of contemporary positive psychology (About Education, 2013).
However, while most people see Seligman as the face of Positive Psychology, he didn’t start the field alone and was not the first ‘positive psychologist’. In fact, there have been many influencers which have contributed to this new era of psychology.
1) William James
James was a philosopher, physician, and psychologist and he was the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. He argued that in order to thoroughly study a person’s optimal functioning, one has to take in how they personally experience something, otherwise known as subjective experience.
He also saw the importance in combining both positivistic and phonological methodology, which is what many now refer to as “radical empiricism”, because he was interested in what was objective and observable. Despite this, many consider James to be America’s “first positive psychologist” (Froh, 2004) because of his deep interest in the subjectivity of a person, and believed that “objectivity is based on intense subjectivity” (2004).
2) Abraham Maslow
While the entire 3rd Wave of Humanistic Psychology played a vital role in providing Positive Psychology with foundational concepts, there was no greater influence from the approach then Abraham Maslow.
In fact, the term “positive psychology” was first coined by Maslow, in his 1954 book “Motivation and Personality”. Maslow did not like how psychology concerned itself mostly with disorder and dysfunction, arguing that it did not have an accurate understanding of human potential. He emphasized how psychology successfully shows our negative side by revealing much about our illnesses and shortcomings, but not enough on our virtues or aspirations (Maslow, 1954, p. 354).
3) Martin Seligman
Seligman is an American Psychologist, educator, and author of self-help books. He is famous for his experiments and theory of learned helplessness is for being the founder of Positive Psychology.
His work in learned helplessness and pessimistic attitudes garnered an interest in optimism, which cued his work with Christopher Peterson (mentioned below) to create a positive side to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).
In their research, they looked at different cultures over time to create a list of virtues that are highly valued and included it in their Character Strengths and Virtues section in the DSM: wisdom/knowledge, courage, transcendence, justice, humanity, and temperance.
In 1996, he was elected President of the American Psychological Association and the central theme he chose for his term as president was positive psychology. He wanted mental health to be more than just the “absence of illness” and was determined to bring psychology to a new era that focused on what makes people feel happy and fulfilled. Today he is the director of the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania.
4) Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi
Czikszentmihalyi was born in Hungary in 1934, and like many other people of that time, he was deeply affected by the Second World War. He was stripped from his family and friends as a child and was put in an Italian prison and it was there he had his first idea of working with flow and optimal experience.
He had an affinity for painting, noting that the act of creating was sometimes more important than the finished work itself. Which cued his fascination with what he called the flow state and he made it his life’s work to scientifically identify the different methods through which one could achieve such a state. His studies and findings gained much popular interested that today he is considered as one of the founders of positive psychology.
5) Christopher Peterson
Christopher Peterson was the professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan and the former chair of the Clinical Psychology department. He was the co-author of Character Strengths and Virtues with Seligman and is noted for his work in the study of optimism, hope, character, and well-being and his important findings make him one of the founders of Positive Psychology for helping to bring Psychology into this new era.
Influential Positive Psychology Researchers
The following positive psychology researchers deserve a special mention. However, there are so many positive psychology researchers whose work is shaping the future of positive psychology that can’t all be mentioned in this article. Check out our full list of Positive Psychology Researchers.
Albert Bandura’s self-efficacy theory originated from his Social-Cognitive theory. It relates to a person’s perception of their ability to reach a goal and the belief that one is capable of performing it in a certain way in order to reach them. This concept has served to be of great impotence and use in positive psychology.
Seligman stated that Clifton followed a similar path that he did when he came up with Strengths-based psychology. He studied successful individuals and wanted to know what they did right to achieve top performance.
His work gave employers solid recommendations on how to find a fulfilling career that is suitable for them. He was honored in 2002 by the American Psychological Association with a Presidential Commendation as the Father of Strengths-based Psychology and he has been called the “grandfather of Positive Psychology” (Snyder, Lopez, & Pedrotti, 2015, p. 66).
Deci and Ryan
The Theory of human motivation known as Self Determination Theory was developed in 2000 by Edward L. Deci, professor in the Department of Clinical and Social Sciences and Richard at the University of Rochester, New York and Richard M. Ryan, clinical psychologist and Professor at the Institute for Positive Psychology and Education at the Australian Catholic University in Sydney, Australia.
Their grounding work on Self-Determination Theory updated the hierarchy of needs that was originally identified by Abraham Maslow and found that human motivation is founded in three major needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness (connecting to other people).
Dr. Ed Diener, aka “Dr. Happiness”, is a leading researcher in PP who coined the term “Subjective well-being” as the aspect of happiness that can be measured scientifically. His argument that there is a strong genetic component to happiness has led to a huge amount of data studying the internal and external conditions of happiness and how one can change it. He even researched the relationship between income and well-being, as well as cultural influences on well-being. His publications have been cited over 98,000 times and his fundamental research on the subject is what earned him his nickname. He has worked with researchers Daniel Kahneman and Martin Seligman and is a senior scientist for The Gallup Organization.
Dweck conducted research on the notion of growth vs. fixed mindset. It has been used with parents, teams, students, entrepreneurs, and business leaders. It is a positive psychology tool that is used widely and praised highly, bringing people more interest to the world of positive psychology.
World-renowned author and researcher, Fredrickson made her first contribution to positive psychology research with her theory on positive emotions, The Broaden and Build Theory, which proposes the idea that positive emotions are able to broaden people’s minds resulting in resources for helping cope and experience well-being and resilience in times of adversity. Since then Fredrickson has done extensive research and produced 2 books. She currently acts as the Director of the Positive Emotions and Psychophysiology Laboratory, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
About the Author
Professor T.S. Srinivasan is currently Visiting Professor in three of India’s national institutes of management – at Lucknow, Kashipur, and Trichy. Formerly, Professor, International Management Institute, at Delhi, India, and at Kiev, Ukraine. Professor Srinivasan has more than 30 years of experience in management education and training, including industrial experience of twelve years. He also attended the Indian Institute of Management, India’s top business school for nearly half a century.
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