Do you know someone who keeps on keeping on, no matter what life throws at them?
How do they continue to thrive, flourish, and grow even stronger as they overcome the obstacles they face? The answer is resilience – which the APA describes as:
“The process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress — such as family and relationship problems, serious health problems or workplace and financial stressors. It means “bouncing back” from difficult experiences.”
At first glance, resilience can seem a lot like learning to ‘grin and bear it’. It’s not. Nor is it avoiding trauma or resisting change. In fact, flexibility is a huge part of resilience, as we’ll see in this article. The key point (and brilliant news) for now, is that resilience is very much a learned pattern of feelings, thoughts, and behaviors (APA.org, 2018).
In this article, we’ll outline and discuss several ways you can learn to develop your mental toughness through resilience training.
This article contains:
- What is Resilience Training?
- Is Mental Toughness Training the Same as Resilience Training?
- The Army Resilience Program
- What Does the Master Resilience Training (MRT) Involve?
- How Will Resilience Training Benefit Your Organization?
- 3 Mental Strength Training Courses
- Free Online Training for Building Personal Resilience
- How to Give Your Own Resilience Workshop
- The Core Components of Effective Resilience Training
- Energy Management
- Goal Setting
- Dealing With Stress
- 5 Useful Powerpoints (PPT)
- 6 Relevant YouTube Videos
- A Take-Home Message
What is Resilience Training?
Defined as “a dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity” by Luthar and colleagues (2000), empirical research shows that resilience can be shaped by how we interpret the adversities we face (Yeager & Dweck, 2012). Meaning that it’s neither purely a factor of our traits or our surroundings, but can be improved, developed, and nurtured (Kim-Cohen, 2007).
Put yet another way—yes, we can learn and teach resilience. And resilience training is one way to achieve this.
Aims of Resilience Training
The Mayo Clinic (2018a) advocates developing our thought processes to be more positive. Specifically, by changing the way our brain interprets events and situations and enhancing our focus on the better parts of our lives. As we’ll see later in this article, positive thinking is also a key part of the US Army’s Master Resilience Training (MRT) program, too.
In organizational literature, we also find support for the idea of training and controlling our attention alongside drawing on our strengths when trying to develop resilience. Cal Crow is the Center for Learning Connections’ Program Director and co-founder, and in an interview with MindTools, he cites key aspects to focus on during resilience training:
- Developing an optimistic outlook for the future;
- Developing solid goals, as well as the desire to accomplish them;
- Developing our compassion and empathy; and
- Developing our focus on what we can control, rather than what we can’t.
The UK-based Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) has also published literature on how practitioners, individuals, and organizations alike can develop resilience – it covers a huge range of different approaches. Amongst them, resilience training involves:
- Understanding and working on our internal locus of control;
- Developing our emotional regulation and awareness;
- Developing our self-efficacy;
- Learning to tolerate ambiguity;
- Developing realistic optimism; and more.
The resource sheet can be found in its full form from the CIPD website.
Is Mental Toughness Training the Same as Resilience Training?
Not quite, because mental toughness and resilience themselves aren’t technically identical.
Mental Toughness can be thought of as more akin to ‘Mental Hardiness’, a personality trait identified by psychologist Suzanne Kobasa in her 1979 study on managerial stress. Mental Toughness and Resilience are often colloquially used to refer to each other, despite a study revealing that the two are positively related, yet distinct concepts (Cowden et al., 2016).
Resilience, on the other hand, is more commonly considered a process. Luthar, Cicchetti, and Becker’s (2000) critical appraisal of the resilience construct takes a good, close look at how resilience has been defined very similarly by different researchers. These include:
- resilience as good adaptation to risk exposure (Kim-Cohen, 2007);
- resilience as a developmental progression to encompass new strengths (Cicchetti, 2010); and
- resilience as the possession of social assets, such as close relationships with others (Hunter, 2012);
So, we can compare these definitions with other researchers’ findings and distinguish the concept from Mental Toughness in at least two clear ways.
First, resilience as a term is often discussed alongside the idea of ‘protective factors’ used to deal with adversity (Luthar et al., 2000). Mental Toughness, on the other hand, applies also to positive situations (Cowden et al., 2016).
Second, where resilience embodies protective factors that can also be external, Mental Toughness is more concerned with the personal attributes impacting on how difficulties are appraised and approached (Gucciardi et al., 2009).
What’s learnable is very often also teachable, and the US Army made significant headway in this by developing its own resilience training program for soldiers.
The Army Resilience Program
The US Army’s resilience program is called Master Resilience Training (MRT). MRT is a 10-day course on developing resilience both during combat and outside it.
MRT initially stemmed from the UoP’s Penn Resilience Program (PRP), which targeted depression prevention in soldiers.
To make the program more accessible to all military personnel and their families, Army officials rolled out the campaign to all soldiers a few years ago. In doing so, they also developed a more proactive approach to building personal resilience and readiness (Taylor & Colvin, 2012; Kimmons, 2016).
Participants in the MRT course look at what resilience means in theory and in practice. MRT looks at how resilience involves using critical thinking, an understanding of the concept itself, and learned skills to deal with challenges, and ‘bounce back’ (Taylor & Colvin, 2012).
On completing the course, soldiers and learners are equipped with a toolkit for overcoming hardship and reassessing challenges. MRT emphasizes the idea of viewing adversity as transient, localized, and manageable through one’s own effort (Taylor & Colvin, 2012).
What Does the Master Resilience Training (MRT) Involve?
The MRT program is delivered by trainers to soldiers, but also teaches soldiers to pass on these skills to others. This section looks at the structure and content of the joint Positive Psychology Center and US Army initiative.
MRT components and modules
During MRT, US Army soldiers go through seven different modules that cover three main components (Reivich et al., 2011; Griffith & West, 2013; US Army Reserve, 2018):
1. Preparation – This covers psychoeducation on the nature of resilience, the mental factors behind it, and how to grow them. These mental factors, or MRT competencies, include:
- mental agility;
- connections; and
- character strengths.
The Preparation component also addresses how to go about identifying and recognizing these strengths both internally and in others, a concept that is also found in the ‘I am’ aspect of the International Resilience Research Program, which we briefly introduce later.
2. Sustainment – the focus of the Sustainment component is to reinforce and apply the resilience skills covered in the Preparation aspect of the course. Soldiers learn to recognize and anticipate what being deployed can involve psychologically, as well as ways to remain resilient and nurture resilience in peers.
3. Enhancement – based heavily on sports psychology principles, the enhancement component covers one module. Here, MRT teaches goal-setting, confidence-building, energy management, and more.
Skills taught by the MRT
The specific skills taught through the program include at least twelve skills – goal setting, problem-solving, ‘hunting the good stuff’, activating thoughts, events and consequences, energy management, avoiding thinking traps, detecting icebergs, putting things in perspective, mental games, real-time resilience, and identifying character strengths. Here’s a look at how a few of these work, and you can find more at the US Army Reserves website.
Avoid thinking traps – recognizing and identifying cognitive distortions, as well as negative self-talk can be done through the use of critical thinking. Where maladaptive thought processes exist, these can be challenged and replaced with more proactive and realistic, rational thinking patterns;
‘Hunt the good stuff’ – helping to challenge negativity biases, which links back to cognitive restructuring (Hope et al., 2010; Ackerman, 2018). By proactively identifying and appreciating the good things that occur each day, soldiers also unlock positive emotions and look at ways they can grow them.
Real-time Resilience – MRT teaches how to shut down counterproductive thought processes and facilitate better concentration on a current task. Through sentence-starter exercises, soldiers learn how to avoid frequently-encountered problems such as minimizing events psychologically and dismissing one’s own part in a problem.
Mental Games – exercises that take the focus off unhelpful or irrational thought patterns by stimulating the mind elsewhere with short, little games.
If you’re interested in learning more about how you can use MRT techniques to help yourself or your client, we have included a handy Powerpoint later in the article. You can also read our article specifically about MRT.
How Will Resilience Training Benefit Your Organization?
Work is one of the most common sources of stress for many employees, a fact which is only exacerbated by how ‘connected’ and ‘interconnected’ we all are thanks to modern technology (CDCP, 2014). Emails, texts, and constant reminders of our job can all add to feelings of being overwhelmed, which is why resilience is a key focal point for many work-based training initiatives.
Resilience training in the workplace typically aims to prevent feelings of burnout and lapsed motivation through several different means. Let’s look at the considerable benefits that such initiatives can have on both people and organizations as a whole.
Resilience involves being able to focus our attention in more productive ways, as we’ve already seen. We as employees often receive myriad streams of different information—all incoming at once. With resilience, we’re better able to focus our attention on challenges that can be solved, as well as on the here and now.
Rather than becoming flustered or stressed by everything that we’re confronted with, we can learn to compartmentalize different things that need to be done. This helps reduce the efficiency burden of switching between different tasks in a less organized way, the APA has found (APA, 2006). And as the two go hand-in-hand, efficiency gains lead to enhanced productivity.
More Adaptive Responses to Stress
Specialists also place something called response flexibility at the heart of resilience (Graham, 2013). It’s described as a neural platform responsible for our ability to “pause, step back, reflect, shift perspectives, create options and choose wisely” (Graham, n.d., in Fernandez, 2016). In the workplace, applying response flexibility allows us to respond to stressful stimuli – people and situations alike – with a useful ‘response’ rather than an emotional ‘reaction’.
How? It works by activating the logical and rational part of our brains, rather than the emotional one. Like this (Fernandez, 2016):
We encounter a difficult situation. Rather than reacting instantly, we hit a mental pause button. We take a moment to view the situation objectively, something Fernandez refers to as ‘decentering’. This allows us to take that step back before coming up with a more rational solution to the perceived problem.
The organizational benefits of this can be felt as a more calm and positive work environment.
Smoother Organizational Change
Organizations constantly need to adapt to the demands of a dynamic and complex business environment. Unfortunately, this is yet another source of job-related stress. Resilience training equips employees to better handle these changes by viewing them less as unmanageable threats, and more as challenges to be tackled head-on. And where change is viewed as less threatening, we can foster more innovative cultures – a key facet of organizational adaptability and competitive advantage (Bloomberg, 2014).
Less Absenteeism and Greater Employee Well-being
In a cross-sectional study of 428 employees, a lack of personal and job resilience was found to predict psychosomatic strain, which in turn contributed to the risk of cardiovascular disease (Ferris et al., 2005).
Another study shows the usefulness of resilience training for reintegrating employees suffering from stress- or burn-out related injuries (Steensma et al., 2007). And yet more findings support the idea of resilience as a key resource for facilitating work engagement, the unofficial ‘opposite’ of absenteeism and work-related stress (Bakker et al., 2006).
So, there’s a lot of research to suggest to link resilience training to organizational benefits, and most of them link back to at least three key things (Carrington, 2013):
- better coping skills;
- reduced stress; and
- greater employee well-being.
3 Mental Strength Training Courses
Mental strength training courses are quite frequently designed for athletes – but as we’ve already seen, the ability to overcome mental barriers is incredibly useful for everyone.
We’ve put together a short list of just a few courses that aim to help you or your clients develop mental strength. Of course, they won’t necessarily be easily accessible based on your geographic location, but hopefully, you can get an idea of what such courses generally cover.
1. The University of Calgary
The University of Calgary runs an executive course called Strengthening Mental Toughness and Resilience that is developed to help leaders develop mental strength. It’s put together by Dr. Sloane Dugan, an Associate Professor in the Organizational Behavior and Human Resources area at the Haskayne School of Business.
The course covers experimental thinking and acting, challenging assumptions, and moving through discomfort and experience (Haskayne School of Business, 2018).
2. Mental Toughness Partners
Mental Toughness Partners is a global network of mental toughness practitioners, coaches, and HR advisers. They offer a range of mental strength training courses across Australia and the APAC region, as well as being aligned with the UK-based assessment developers AQR. Their mental toughness courses provide companies, individuals, and more with strategies and models for boosting mental strength and resilience.
As well as teaching activities and practical skills, their mental strength course guides participants through crafting a personal action plan for mental toughness. You can find out more on their website (Mental Toughness Partners, 2018).
3. High-Performance Parenting
Online, and therefore accessible from anywhere, High-Performance Parenting (HP Parenting) offers an e-learning course for parents hoping to build mental strength in young athletes. The Mental Strength Training resource is structured around three core areas: dealing with disappointment, coping with stress and nerves, and maintaining focus during competitions.
Course participants also learn about pre-performance techniques, cue words that they can use, and gain access to downloadable resources for use anywhere.
There are far too many mental strength training courses out there for us to even begin doing all of them justice. Hopefully, however, we’ve provided you with at least three useful examples of different categories of mental strength training that will help you guide any future search for something that suits you.
Free Online Training for Building Personal Resilience
The internet is full of training programs that you can use to help your clients (or yourself) build personal resilience.
In fact, we’ve got our own special page right on our website that’s packed with free online training resources for building personal resilience. You’ll find a wealth of exercises, psychoeducational takeaways, and videos that can easily be used alongside the Powerpoint, books, and more included in this article.
If you’re looking for a pre-existing structured approach elsewhere online to supplement these, here are a few useful training programs.
CABA: Building your resilience
CABA is a charity that supports accounting professionals in the UK. Their free online resilience training workshop, Building Your Resilience, is free for all to use, but you’ll need to create an account to access the course.
Once inside, the course comprises three presentation videos that allow you to progress through the material at your own page. It covers aspects such as:
- factors that influence personal and professional resilience;
- how to develop a resilient mindset and attitude;
- dealing with stress;
- the ‘S.A.D.A’ Cycle (Shock, Anger, Depression, and Acceptance);
- developing and building on your existing resilience; and
- constructing a personal, actionable plan for the same.
The Building your Resilience course videos take around 1-2 hours to complete in total, and you can also download the slides as PDFs. There is also a downloadable questionnaire to help you ‘assess’ your personal resilience as you answer questions on a seven-point Likert scale from Strongly Disagree (1) to Strongly Agree (7). These include:
- Very little upsets me, I take things as they come
- I have faith in my ability to cope when life is difficult
- I can find the funny side of most things
You can access the workshop on the CABA website.
Deakin University: Professional Resilience: Building Skills to Thrive
FutureLearn also currently offers free online resilience personal training in the form of a 2-week, self-paced course. Developed by Deakin University, it’s called Professional Resilience: Building Skills to Thrive and takes approximately 3 hours each week to work through the material.
The course begins with an overview of resilience and its importance in society today. It then introduces the learner to steps for developing resilience, followed by how they can:
build resilient capabilities and skills;
build resilient self-care practices; and
build resilient values and engagement.
It also guides the user through creating a personal resilience plan, much like the CABA course above.
The University of Washington: Becoming a Resilient Person – The Science of Stress Management
Designed by the University of Washington, this edX program is called Becoming a Resilient Person – The Science of Stress Management. It is currently archived, which means that it’s not possible to get a grade from doing this online personal resilience training. However, the course materials – videos, labs, tools, and quizzes are still available for reading. The course aims to empower learners to become more resilient by:
- ‘functioning from the inside out’;
- practicing mindfulness and using strategies to do so;
- inducing positive emotions;
- clarifying your own personal values;
- making healthier lifestyle choices; and
- dealing with negative or intense emotions more effectively.
Like the other courses, it also ends with an overview of how you can develop your own resilience roadmap.
How to Give Your Own Resilience Workshop
With so many resources available, giving your own resilience training session shouldn’t be too difficult. We’ve included at least five Powerpoints in later sections that make great workshop aids.
You’ll need to decide on the type of workshop you plan to deliver, and the core components that you plan to guide clients through. In the next section, we cover some of these key aspects in greater depth.
The Core Components of Effective Resilience Training
As we’ve just seen, there’s no hard and fast way to go about resilience training. An approach that works well for the organizational executive may not address the particular physical challenges faced by an athlete, or soldier, for instance. However, there are several core components that everyone can gain from through resilience training.
This list is not exhaustive, but in the next sections we’ll aim to cover the key areas of:
- Energy management;
- Goal setting; and
- Dealing with stress.
MRT trainer Daniel Grifo describes the concept in one of his Energy Management workshops, and we’ll use his brilliantly clear explanation to outline how energy management can be explained to clients.
According to Grifo, energy management involves understanding how our body activates energy in different states and learning to regulate them (Gilbert, 2016).
When we’re in a ‘fight or flight’ state, our adrenal systems release energy, oxygen, and blood to our muscles. We get an energy boost to respond physically to any perceived stressors in our environment.
When we’re in a ‘rest and digest’ state, our parasympathetic nervous system is more in control. Our bodies focus more on conserving energy, digestion, and processes such as regeneration and recovery.
Energy management involves regulating these energy activation states to have greater control over our own performance (Gilbert, 2016). Where we don’t require a sympathetic response – a rush of energy – our performance can be negatively impacted by this excessive response. Instead, we should be aiming for what Grifo calls our ‘individual zone of function’ (IZOF), and we can do this by practicing certain exercises and techniques.
When we think about the different activities we commonly carry out, we can identify our IZOF for those activities. This helps us better understand whether we want to increase or lower the energy levels that we want to use for those activities.
Deliberate, rhythmic breathing is one example of an exercise that can help us regulate any overly high energy levels we might experience in response to perceived stressors. Where we’re facing a public speaking scenario, for example, it can be helpful to decrease our energy levels and improve our performance by breathing deeply.
Goal setting features heavily in resilience training programs across the world. The idea behind setting realistic and attainable goals is resilient individuals often demonstrate the tenacity and commitment to achieving their objectives. We’ll look at why, and how you can do the same by considering a few resilience training exercises that focus on this area.
Goal setting and resilience in MRT
The MRT program breaks down goal-setting into 7 steps for US Army soldiers (US Army Reserves, 2018):
Step 1: Define your goal;
Step 2: Know where you are right now;
Step 3: Decide what you need to develop;
Step 4: Make a plan for steady improvement;
Step 5: Pursue regular action;
Step 6: Commit yourself completely; and
Step 7: Consistently monitor your progress.
By setting goals, working towards them, and demonstrating a commitment to their achievement, soldiers work on developing sustained motivation and enhanced effort.
Goal setting and attainment has also been related to feelings of reward and to well-being within the organizational literature (Grant et al., 2009). Why? Because of the long-established relationships between goals and self-efficacy, the latter of which is central to resilience (Bandura, 1988; 1993; Schunk, 1990).
Resilience training using S.M.A.R.T goals
We can apply these MRT learnings in our own resilience training directly quite easily. Or we can take the concept of Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound (S.M.A.R.T.) goals more broadly to develop our own approaches to the same thing.
We’ve also put some useful exercises together that may help you set goals for your clients’ resilience training or any workshops you may wish to run.
Dealing With Stress
Stress is commonly thought of as coming under the more ‘clinical’ umbrella of psychology. It’s important to remember, however, that resilience is about learning how to deal with stress rather than complete avoidance of stressors – a much more handy tool to have over the long term.
There are many ways to go about dealing with the stress that we feel in response to life’s events. Within the MRT program, soldiers and their families are encouraged to develop skills that help them ‘Hunt the Good Stuff’. Above, we discussed this in the context of cognitive reframing and how it means learning to challenge negative thought patterns. In fact, ‘Hunt the Good Stuff’ is a little broader than cognitive restructuring.
According to another US Army MRT trainer Master Sgt. Sheila Sango, this aspect of dealing with stress also involves proactively recognizing and analyzing the good things that happen to us. In her words, reflecting on the good things is a practice that “leads to better health, better sleep, feeling calm, better relationships, and greater life satisfaction”.
Keeping a gratitude journal is often an effective way to practice dealing with stress as part of resilience training. You’ll find some sentence stems below, from TherapistAid, that can be very useful if you are hoping to give your own resilience training workshop.
For each day, there are three different sentence stems that your client can complete, including:
- One good thing that happened to me today…
- Something good that I saw someone do…
- Today I had fun when…
- Something I accomplished today…
- Something funny that happened today…
The worksheet is available in its full form TherapistAid.
5 Useful Powerpoints (PPT)
1. Learn to Cope: Be Resilient
Prepared by NDCEL member and consultant Rick Heidt, this Powerpoint is called ‘Learn to Cope: Be Resilient” (automatic download). It includes ‘10 Ways to Build Resilience’ from the APA brochure ‘The Road to Resilience’, which encourages us to:
- Make connections – by building healthy relationships with those close to us, being open to accepting help, and helping others to strengthen our resilience;
- Avoid seeing crises as insurmountable problems – by reassessing, reframing, and adapting our responses to stressful events. By looking forward to the future rather than focusing on the problem at hand;
- Accept that change is a part of living – and focusing on what we can, rather than cannot change;
- Move toward our goals – setting realistic targets and goals that we can accomplish…
- Take decisive actions – …and take decisive steps to achieve;
- Look for opportunities for self-discovery – we can learn from traumatic, stressful, or difficult events, use them to make ourselves stronger and more resilient;
- Nurture a positive view of ourselves – trusting our instincts and growing confidence in our own capabilities;
- Keep things in perspective – and avoid catastrophizing or losing our long-term view;
- Maintain a hopeful outlook – being optimistic, using visualization techniques; and
- Take care of ourselves – physically, emotionally, and socially.
The presentation also contains some group exercises and worksheets. A core set of these are based on the findings of the International Resilience Research Project (IRRP), which studied over 1200 families and children worldwide (Grotberg, 1998; International Resilience Project, 2018):
- Knowing our resources: “I have”, where we think about our social support networks;
- Knowing our strengths: “I am”, which comprise our virtues and the good things about ourselves; and
- Knowing our abilities: “I can”, which covers how we can use our resources to train our resilience.
2. Rolling with the Punches
This resource from the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) is put together by Dr. Amy Iversen of Kings College and Dr. Charlotte Feinman of University College, London. It’s called “Rolling With The Punches”. (automatic download)
The presentation starts several definitions of resilience and how we can develop it, before moving on to focus on some of the unhelpful styles and behaviors that resilience can help us overcome. Negative thinking, perfectionism, procrastination, and self-criticism, among others.
The Powerpoint then moves on to introduce some of the more common self-directed questions that you or your clients can ask to challenge irrational thoughts, followed by some exercises. Here’s an example of one that you can use in your own workshops to guide others through stressful or traumatic situations.
‘When Disaster Strikes’, Iversen and Feinmann encourage you or your client to:
- Count to 10 before reacting;
- Find memories of when you HAVE coped;
- Activate the calming part of your psyche;
- Give someone a hug!;
- Go for a walk outside; and/or
- Find one positive thing you can learn from the situation.
Here you can access the NHS presentation (automatic download).
3. MRT Presentations
Elsewhere on our own website, we’ve also provided links to a range of other Powerpoints related to the US Army’s MRT program. They are:
- The University of Pennsylvania’s Positive Psychology Center MRT presentation that introduces resilience, part of the overall program; and
- One made by the US Army about Building Mental Toughness.
4. Resiliency Ohio Powerpoint
This is a very in-depth presentation, and probably not one that would fall in the basket of succinct ‘grab and grow’ resource. Yet authors Shepler, Garner, and Rietz of Resiliency Ohio manage to provide an absolute wealth of easily understandable:
- frameworks; and
- tools about resilience.
All of them packed full of implications for therapists looking to guide clients through their own self-directed resilience training. It’s called “Insights on Resiliency: Utilizing Youth and Family-Based Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice”.
Download it from the Resiliency Ohio website.
6 Relevant YouTube Videos
What Trauma Taught Me About Resilience – a TEDx Charlotte talk by Charles Hunt in which he relates his own personal experience of developing resilience. Touching yet educational, Hunt shares his learnings on resilience and overcoming.
Resilience as a key to success – Another TEDx talk, this time in Amsterdam by psychologist Elke Geraerts. She gives practical advice on how we view the brain as yet another muscle to be trained in developing resilience.
Building Resilience: 5 Ways to a Better Life – Psychiatrist Dr. Stephen Marmer from the UCLA Medical School talks about how we can develop resilience through several key suggestions.
Cultivating resilience – Dr. Greg Eells discusses what resilience is about, and using it to turn difficulties into growth opportunities.
Emotional Resiliency & Mental Toughness – SEALFIT makes a strong motivational point while discussing the mental toughness that takes us through extreme training—and everything else: “Don’t quit in the darkness”.
A Very Happy Brain – The Mayo Clinic’s cartoon video on Resilience makes it more accessible for older children.
A Take Home Message
Resilience gives us all kinds of mental and psychological strengths. We’ve looked at the ideas behind this ability and the diverse benefits that resilience training can give me, you, and all of us. From dealing with change to handling trauma or daily stress, resilience is a highly useful capacity to have.
Whether you are keen to develop your own or others’ resilience, the resources we’ve put together should hopefully be of great use. Ideally, there’s a little something that everyone can gain from in this post!
Hope you enjoyed this article! We’re looking forward to hearing any thoughts or ideas about resilience you might have in the comments.
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- Gucciardi, D. (2009). Do developmental differences in mental toughness exist between specialized and invested Australian footballers? Pers. Individ. Differ. 47, pp.985–989.
- Haskayne School of Business. (2018). Strengthening Mental Toughness and Resilience. Retrieved from https://haskayne.ucalgary.ca/executive/programs-individuals/mental-toughness.
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