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Self-help books often promote the power of positive affirmations. You, me, and almost everybody in the 21st century have heard of them. But if you’ve never tried them before, the idea can seem incredibly awkward.
Telling yourself how awesome you are can seem bizarre, but if that’s all your doing, there are probably more effective ways to go about it. And if you’re a skeptic, it doesn’t hurt to understand how and why positive affirmations became so popular.
And yes, there is genuine theory and a fair amount of neuroscience behind this practice. Let’s have a look!
This article contains:
- What are Positive Affirmations? (Incl. Definition)
- Is There Science Behind It?
- A Look at the Research
- Benefits of Daily Affirmations
- Questions Asked About Affirmations
- Positive Affirmation Examples
- Positive Affirmation Cards
- Recommended Apps
- Positive Morning Affirmations
- Positive Affirmation Meditations
- Who is Louise Hay?
- 3 Positive Affirmations in Audio
- Recommended Books
- 5 YouTube Videos Worth Watching
- 5 Quotes
- A Take-Home Message
What are Positive Affirmations? (Incl. Definition)
Fortunately, positive affirmations are almost as simple to practice as they are to define. Put simply, they are positive phrases or statements used to challenge negative or unhelpful thoughts.
Practicing positive affirmations can be equally simple, and all you need to do is repeat them to yourself.
You may choose to use positive affirmations to motivate yourself, encourage positive change in your life or boost your self-esteem. If you frequently find yourself getting caught up in negative self-talk, positive affirmations can be used to combat these—often subconscious—patterns, and replace them with more adaptive narratives.
Is There Science Behind It?
Science, yes. Magic, no. Positive affirmations require regular practice if you want to make lasting, long-term change to the ways that you think and feel. The good news, as noted, is that their practice and popularity is based on widely-accepted and well-established psychological theory.
The Psychological Theory Behind Positive Affirmations
One of the key psychological theories behind positive affirmations is self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988). So, yes, there are empirical studies based around the idea that we can maintain our sense of self-integrity by telling ourselves, or ‘affirming’ what we believe in positive ways.
Very briefly, self-integrity relates to our global self-efficacy—our perceived ability to control moral outcomes and respond flexibly when our self-concept is threatened (Cohen & Sherman, 2014).
So, we as humans are motivated to protect ourselves from these threats by maintaining our self-integrity.
Self-Identity and Self-Affirmation
Self-affirmation theory has three key ideas underpinning it. They are worth having in mind if we are to understand how positive affirmations work according to the theory.
First, through self-affirmation, we keep up a global narrative about ourselves. In this narrative, we are flexible, moral, and capable of adapting to different circumstances. This, you’ll notice, is our self-identity (Cohen & Sherman, 2014).
Self-identity (which we’re seeking to maintain, you’ll recall) is not the same as having a rigid and strictly defined self-concept. Instead of viewing ourselves in one ‘fixed’ way, say as a “student” or “son”, our self-identity can be flexible. We can see ourselves as adopting a range of different identities and roles. This means we can define success in different ways, too.
Why is it a good thing? Because we can view different unique things about ourselves positively and thus adapt to different situations much better (Aronson, 1969).
Secondly, self-affirmation theory argues that maintaining self-identity is not about being exceptional, perfect, or excellent (Cohen & Sherman, 2014). Rather, the authors argue, we just need to be competent and adequate in different areas that we personally value in order to be moral, flexible, and good (Steele, 1988).
Last, we maintain self-integrity by acting in ways that merit acknowledgment and praise, not simply by patting ourselves on the back for certain things. In terms of positive affirmations, we don’t say something like “I am a responsible godmother” because we want to receive that praise. We say it because we want to deserve that praise. For acting in ways that are consistent with that particular personal value.
A Look at the Research
The theory has, of course, led to neuroscientific research aimed at investigating whether we can see any changes in the brain when we self-affirm in positive ways.
There is MRI evidence suggesting that certain neural pathways are increased when people practice self-affirmation tasks (Cascio et al., 2016). If you want to be super specific, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex—involved in positive valuation and self-related information processing—becomes more active when we consider our personal values (Falk et al., 2015; Cascio et al., 2016).
When we choose to practice positive affirmations, therefore, the results of a study by Falk and colleagues suggest this may help us to view “otherwise-threatening information as more self-relevant and valuable” (2015: 1979). As we’ll see in a moment, this can have several benefits because it relates to how we process different information about ourselves.
Benefits of Daily Affirmations
6 Proven Benefits of Daily Affirmations
So, here is some evidence from empirical studies which suggest that positive self-affirmation practices can be beneficial:
- Self-affirmations have been shown to decrease health-deteriorating stress (Sherman et al., 2009; Critcher & Dunning, 2015);
- Self-affirmations have been used effectively in interventions which led people to increase their physical behavior (Cooke et al., 2014)
- They may help us to perceive otherwise ‘threatening’ messages with less resistance, including interventions (Logel & Cohen, 2012);
- They can make us less likely to dismiss harmful health messages, responding instead with the intention to change for the better (Harris et al., 2007) and eat more fruit and vegetables (Epton & Harris, 2008);
- They have been linked positively to academic achievement, by mitigating GPA decline in students who feel ‘left out’ at college (Layous et al., 2017); and
- Self-affirmation has been demonstrated to lower stress and rumination (Koole et al., 1999; Weisenfeld et al., 2001).
If you’re interested in finding out more about the proven benefits of practicing positive affirmations, this article by Critcher and Dunning (2015) is worth a read. The article looks at the ways that practicing affirmations has been shown to foster a broader sense of self-concept.
What are the Health Benefits?
As the studies above suggest, positive affirmations can help us to respond in a less defensive and resistant way when we’re presented with threats. One nice example, mentioned above, showed that smokers reacted less dismissively to graphic cigarette packet warnings and reported intention to change their behavior (Harris et al., 2007).
And, we’ve seen that it can encourage us to eat more vegetables (Epton & Harris, 2008), and to be more active (Cooke et al., 2014).
But more broadly, an adaptive, broad sense of self makes us more resilient to difficulties when they arise. Whether it’s social pressures, health information that makes us feel uncomfortable, or feelings of exclusion, a less narrow self-concept can be a good thing to have.
Can They Help One’s Outlook on Life?
As inherently positive statements, affirmations are designed to encourage an optimistic mindset. And optimism in itself is a powerful thing. In terms of reducing negative thoughts, affirmations have been shown to help with the tendency to linger on negative experiences (Wiesenfeld et al., 2001).
When we are able to deal with negative messages and replace them with positive statements, we can construct more adaptive, hopeful narratives about who we are and what we can accomplish.
What is Healing Affirmation?
This kind of affirmation is a positive statement about your physical wellbeing. Popularized in a big way by author and speaker Louise Hay, these are based on the idea that your thoughts can influence your health for the better. You don’t have to be unwell to practice healing affirmations, this idea can be just as helpful for healing emotional pain if you find the idea rings with you.
Examples from Louise’s website include:
“My happy thoughts help create my healthy body”
“Wellness is the natural state of my body. I am in perfect health.”
Questions Asked About Affirmations
Are Self Affirmations Best Said Every Day?
There are no hard and fast rules about timing or frequency when it comes to practicing self-affirmations.
According to psychotherapist Dr. Ronald Alexander of the Open Mind Training Institute, affirmations can be repeated up to 3-5 times daily to reinforce the positive belief. He suggests that writing your affirmations down in a journal and practicing them in the mirror is a good method of making them more powerful and effective (Alexander, 2011).
The latter is consistent with recommendations given by the popular author Louise Hay of You Can Heal Your Life, whose work we touch on at the end of this article.
Can They Help with Anxiety and Depression?
By aiming to challenge or change negative thought patterns, the idea of affirmations as a means of introducing new and adaptive cognitive processes is very much the underlying premise of cognitive restructuring. This is supported by a study of cancer patients which suggests that spontaneous self-affirmations are significantly positively related to feelings of hopefulness (Taber et al., 2016).
Will they Boost Self-Esteem?
Affirmations can sometimes be very useful for boosting your self-esteem. But there’s a caveat.
The most important thing, according to self-affirmation theory, is that your affirmations reflect your core personal values (Cohen & Sherman, 2014). There is little point in repeating something arbitrary to yourself if it doesn’t gel with your own sense of what you believe to be good, moral, and worthwhile.
To have any kind of impact on your self-esteem, your self-affirmations should be positively focused, and things that you can act in accordance with to reinforce your sense of self-identity. Use your real strengths, or strengths that you consider important to guide your affirmations.
Can you Improve Sleep with Affirmations?
A large number of anxiety sufferers experience disturbed sleep (Staner, 2003). In the sense that affirmations can sometimes help to relieve anxiety, they may thus have some beneficial effects in promoting better sleep.
At face value, too, meditating on your affirmations can be relaxing and soothing. Meditation has been found to have numerous benefits in terms of sleep quality, so positive affirmation meditation could very well be a good way to try and improve your sleep (Nagendra et al., 2012).
If you are interested in trying, you’ll find some audio and video below that may be helpful.
Are They Just Positive Mantras?
If you start digging into the academic literature, you’ll find that the two terms get used interchangeably quite a lot. The same goes with more colloquial uses of the term. There is a difference, though.
Technically, mantras are sacred words, sounds, or verses that carry more spiritual meaning (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019). Frequently said aloud or mentally, they are believed to have deep significance to them and feature a lot in meditation. More specifically, according to Encyclopedia Britannica (2019):
“Most mantras are without any apparent verbal meaning, but they are thought to have a profound underlying significance and are in effect distillations of spiritual wisdom.”
Positive affirmations, in contrast, are described by the Psychology Dictionary as brief phrases, repeated frequently, which are designed to encourage positive, happy feelings, thoughts, and attitudes. They hold no spiritual or religious meaning in the traditional sense and can be used for many purposes.
Positive Affirmation Examples
Based on this definition, here are some examples of positive affirmations:
- I believe in myself, and trust my own wisdom;
- I am a successful person; and
- I am confident and capable at what I do.
Below we have more affirmation examples, focused on specific areas.
9 Positive Affirmations for Women
Looking for some ideas to create your own affirmations? Here are some nice examples:
- I choose to be happy.
- My life is taking place right here, right now.
- I’m gifted with and surrounded by amazing friends and family.
- I opt to rise above negative feelings and ditch negative thoughts.
- I am resilient, strong, brave, and can’t be destroyed.
- Nobody but me decides how I feel.
- When I lie down to sleep, everything is as it should be, and I rest content.
- I am in charge of my thoughts, and I don’t judge myself.
- I accept and love myself, thoroughly and completely.
9 Positive Affirmations for Men
Here are some affirmations for men, including affirmations of self-acceptance and positive self-talk about body image. These affirmations are based on a larger list of 30 and adapted using CBT ‘Negative Core Beliefs‘ themes that can be found at TherapistAid.
- I am responsible for looking after me.
- By being myself, I bring happiness to other people.
- My goals and desires are as worthwhile as everybody else’s.
- Through courage and hard work, I can achieve anything that I set my mind to.
- I’m fine with who I am, and I love who I am becoming.
- Through my contributions, I make positive changes to the world.
- My body is amazing just the way it is and I accept myself this way.
- I choose only to surround myself with supportive and good people.
- Whenever I fall down, I get back up again.
Regular, if not daily practice can sometimes be one of the hardest things to get to grips with when you first start with affirmations. But come up with some that you find meaningful and it may be a little easier.
11 Positive Affirmations for Teens
Social pressures and academic stresses can take their toll, but you can turn around negative self-talk and do something positive about the way you choose to feel.
- I am a quick, capable learner.
- I believe in myself as a person and all my capabilities.
- I am unique and beautiful.
- Others respect me for following my own beliefs.
- If a few others don’t accept me, I’m fine with that.
- I forgive others for sometimes doing the wrong thing, and I forgive myself when I do the same.
- I am kind and good to the person I see in the mirror.
- I deserve to see myself as amazing.
- Whatever difficulties come my way, I have the power to overcome them.
- I was born strong, and I grow stronger every day.
- Today, I am going to trust myself and my instincts.
- I am good enough, and I am fine with just being me.
- I treat others with respect, and they treat me the same.
- I choose to rise above the hurtful things that might come my way.
- I am working every day on the best me that I can be.
These positive affirmations for teens are inspired by this article from the Positive Affirmations Center, and this video by Jason Stephenson. We’ve featured the latter in its full form a little further on.
11 Positive Affirmations for Kids
By learning to practice positive affirmations at a young age, kids can become much more prepared to use them when facing difficulties later in life (Bloch, 2015). These will understandably be much simpler. The easier they are for young kids to remember, the more likely they will be able to practice them without your help.
- I am loved.
- I am creative.
- I am kind.
- I am brave.
- I am a responsible person.
- I will always do my best.
- I am unique.
- When I set out to do something, I am capable of doing it.
- I’ll always help others.
- I’m going to learn lots today because I am capable!
- I am important and a valuable person.
Similar affirmations for kids can be found at TheTeacherToolkit.
Everyday Positive Affirmations for Students
Students may find that affirmations are helpful in coping with the stress of academic life, and assessments, as well as life more broadly. Here are some examples from the full list, that you can use for motivation or inspiration.
- When I get a bad grade, I am motivated to do better.
- I am determined and I aim for the stars.
- I set myself high standards in terms of my academic achievement. By putting in time and effort, I can easily accomplish what I set out to achieve.
- I appreciate my school, teachers, and classmates because they all play a role in helping me grow to be a better person.
- Even on days when I don’t make much progress, I am constantly learning. On other days, I make amazing progress towards my goals.
9 Positive Affirmations to Help Relieve Anxiety
Most people who have suffered from anxiety will know how important it can be to cut off negative thought patterns before they begin to spiral. These affirmations can be used at any time, and even those who don’t typically feel anxious may find them useful during stressful moments.
During times of anxiety or depression, this list of 72 positive affirmations can be used for reassuring yourself. A few examples inspired by this resource include:
- I am liberating myself from fear, judgment, and doubt.
- I choose only to think good thoughts.
- My anxiety does not control my life. I do.
Some other affirmations related to non-judgment and mindfulness for anxiety can be found on this list. Here are some that draw inspiration from the list:
- I breathe, I am collected, and I am calm.
- I am safe, and everything is good in my world.
- Inside me, I feel calm, and nobody can disturb this peacefulness.
Another 52 mantras can be found at Anxiety Gone. Here are some based on these principles:
- I recognize that my negative thoughts are irrational, and I am now going to stop these fears.
- This is just one moment in time.
- I’m not going to be scared by a feeling.
While practicing these affirmations, try to take deep, slow, soothing breaths. As you become more attuned to the flow of your breath in and out, try not to let your feelings distract you. Focus on the affirmation that you’ve put time into creating for yourself, and each time you practice, it will feel more natural.
5 Daily Affirmations for Depression
As with anxiety, depression is often linked closely to—if not underpinned significantly by—thought processes such as overgeneralization and cognitive distortions (Beck, 1964).
Selective abstraction is a common distortion that is associated with depression and describes the tendency to overexaggerate negative things while underemphasizing the positive. Affirmations can help us to try and correct this balance by acknowledging and focusing on more positive aspects of both ourselves and our lives.
Here are 5 daily affirmations you can adapt, as we have. You can also view them at their original source.
- I am not afraid to keep going, I believe in myself.
- I have come this far, and I am proud of myself.
- This is just one moment in my life, and it does not define who I am.
- This is one isolated moment, not my entire life. Things will get better.
- These are just thoughts. Only I determine the way I choose to feel.
5 Positive Affirmations to Help Build Self-Esteem
As promised, here are five positive affirmations that are designed to help you increase your self-esteem:
- I release negative feelings and thoughts about myself.
- I always see the best in others.
- I believe in who I am.
- I am on a journey, ever growing and developing.
- I am consistent in the things that I say and do.
Words of Affirmation to Use During Pregnancy
If you are expecting, here are some suggestions from midwife, reflexologist and practicing nurse Marie Drake Boyle. These can even be useful during labor, she suggests:
- My baby is secure, loved, and safe.
- My baby is going to be healthy and at the best time for us.
- I trust my instincts and my body to tell me what I need when I am giving birth.
- Strong, healthy, good contractions will guide my baby into this world.
- I am relaxed, and my baby is going to be born easily.
Here is the full list.
Using Positive Affirmations at Work
Just like you can practice mindfulness in a quiet moment at work, there’s no reason not to take out some time to practice your affirmations.
Some examples might include:
- I do not need to rely on others judgment for acceptance;
- I do my very best, and that’s great; and
- I am resilient and can handle problems with expertise.
Positive Affirmation Cards
If you find that writing down your positive affirmations is helpful, or you want to carry them around with you throughout your day, why not make your own positive affirmation cards?
A quick internet search will reveal an abundance of these products, but all you really need is your own affirmations, a piece of paper or card, scissors and a pen. Quite simply, they are little cards that you can pop into your wallet, bag, or pocket—they can be useful as a little reminder if you’re on the move.
If you’re after an app that can whip up a positive affirmation for you, here are some great examples.
ThinkUp is an app which features affirmations that are personally used by dozens of different people; coaches, athletes, authors, and more. If it seems difficult at first to think of a meaningful set of affirmations, this is a great source of inspiration.
Prefer to receive an uplifting SMS instead? When you sign up at their website, Shine will send you one text each weekday, and they claim that 93% of their users have reported noticeable improvements in their happiness each day.
3. Unique Daily Affirmations
It’s as simple as one unique positive affirmation each day with this app, simply click into it or set a reminder and it will pop up. In addition, Unique Daily Affirmations has a nice feature in which you can record your own affirmations and upload your own photos to make it more ‘you’.
Positive Morning Affirmations
Do you look in the mirror before leaving the house in the morning? This is a great opportunity to practice mirror work, according to Louise Hay, who is perhaps best known for her books and talks on positive thinking.
And the morning, she believes, is the best time to determine how you want the rest of the day to go. It’s why positive morning affirmations can be very powerful—and a great opportunity to practice repeating them in the mirror. Here are some of her suggestions:
- I am beautiful and everybody loves me.
- Life brings me only good experiences. I am open to new and wonderful changes.
- I feel glorious, dynamic energy. I am active and alive.
- Every experience I have is perfect for my growth.
- Today I create a wonderful day and a wonderful new future.
- Abundance flows freely through me.
- My self-esteem is high because I honor who I am.
These examples are from author Louise Hay’s website.
Some general sentences that you can use to create your own positive morning affirmations include:
- Each day, I am growing stronger;
- Today, I am going to tackle everything bravely and with confidence;
- I am in charge of how I live each day.
What works for one person isn’t always going to work for the next. If you are having difficulty coming up with your own affirmations, try to think of a value that you would like to become part of your personal narrative. If it helps, you can scroll back up to where we talked about self-affirmation and use those principles to guide you.
Positive Affirmation Meditations
You don’t have to limit yourself to repeating your affirmations subconsciously or aloud. You can use these to guide a meditation session while you reflect on what you say to yourself each day.
How, where, and why you might want to practice meditation is a much larger discussion, but the relaxation benefits are very much widely acknowledged. Here are a few guided meditation videos that might help you relax and meditate on your positive affirmations.
1. Positive Thinking Meditation: Endorphin Meditation with Positive Affirmations
Linda Hall is a personal development coach, as well as a meditation teacher. This video uses affirmations with positive thinking principles. It’s ten minutes long, so quite nice for whenever you might get a short moment to yourself.
2. Morning Meditation: 10 Minutes – Positive Affirmations to start your day
A nice mix of affirmations that includes breathing techniques. As the title suggests, this video can be a short, but intensely relaxing and motivating way to start your day.
3. I AM Morning Affirmations: Gratitude, Self Love, Positive Energy, Freedom & Happiness
In a similar vein, this video uses affirmations of self-love, gratitude, and self-acceptance. Another resource to guide your morning meditation.
Who is Louise Hay?
Louise Hay was an author, teacher, and lecturer, well-known for her worldwide bestselling You Can Heal Your Life and the book – The Present Moment: 365 Daily Affirmations. Born in the States, she went through some difficult experiences including abuse and domestic violence before establishing the First Church of Religious Science.
You Can Heal Your Life was originally a much smaller collection of techniques based on the mind-body relationship, which she wrote about the healing power of positive thoughts.
When Louise was diagnosed with what medical professionals called irreversible cervical cancer in the late seventies, she began looking into non-medical alternatives. In doing so, she created an approach that combined visualization, forgiveness, psychotherapy, dietary health, and psychotherapy instead. In later interviews—Louise lived to the age of ninety—she shared how she believed this was what led to her being cured within a half year.
Louise argued that self-perspectives and other negative beliefs often underpin our health problems. Through affirmations and alternative approaches such as positive thinking, she argued, we have the power to transform our lives and health.
You may have seen Louise on Oprah, or you may have read one of her books, in which you can learn more about the techniques, practices, and affirmations that beautifully explain her beliefs.
3 Positive Affirmations in Audio
Well, in practice, there are a lot more than three.
If you’d rather listen to some affirmations on the go, or your morning is way too busy for mirror work, here are some audio tracks you can listen to while you’re out and about.
1. Rewire Your Brain: 300 Affirmations for Positive Thinking (Audiobook)
This audiobook by Zhanna Hamilton is exactly what it sounds like, and contains hundreds of affirmations that you can take in the car, bus, train, or wherever you are. The premise is exactly what we’ve covered so far—that we can use these positive narratives to develop more optimistic thought patterns.
Available at Amazon.
2. Affirmations Audio by Calmer You
Here’s a free audio track that’s very basic. If you don’t want music or anything too fancy, this is a very short track of affirmations read out loud that you can put on your phone as an mp3.
Download it from Calmer You.
3. Positive Affirmations by Anandra Rose
This is a soft and gently read 33-minute track of motivational affirmations that you can listen to anywhere, including as you drift off to sleep. Straightforward and uplifting to help you shift your attitude away from negative thoughts.
Get the Audible version here.
If you’re a reader and want to learn more, here are some nice books that you can order or download in whatever format suits you best.
1. You Can Heal Your Life by Louise Hay
Louise Hay’s bestselling book is a great place to start if you want to learn more about healing affirmations and her life-changing experiences with positive thinking.
Available on Amazon.
2. You Can Do All Things by Kate Allan
This is a gorgeous book of affirmations, drawings, and even mindfulness tips. These were written to help those wanting to deal with depression and anxiety.
Available on Amazon.
3. Affirmations: The Power of Affirmations & The Secret to Their Success by Louise Stapely
This lovely book contains over 1000 affirmations that you can use to inspire your own. It also contains tips about how you can make your affirmation practice more effective.
Available on Amazon.
5 YouTube Videos Worth Watching
You may prefer audio rather than reading, and if so, you may find it super helpful to repeat the affirmations in some of these videos. There is ever so much scientific evidence to show that repeating things out loud makes for more effective learning!
1. POWERFUL 7 Minute Affirmations – Self Confidence for Teens
Just as negative thoughts can have huge power on the way we feel, so can positive ones. Even if these affirmations for teens aren’t your particular cup of tea, there are some lovely things in here that will definitely make you smile.
This video also has a huge, huge number of examples that you can use to create your own affirmations, that means something to you.
2. Self-Love Affirmations: “I am Beautiful” Affirm your Self Worth
This is a beautifully soothing video because it’s designed to aid sleep. Here are a few of the self-worth affirmations from the track:
“I think positive thoughts about myself and others”;
“I protect myself against any hurt that comes my way”; and
“I like the person I see in the mirror”
3. Louise Hay – Your Own Healing
Some healing affirmations from Louise Hay herself. This may be a particularly useful resource for those who are interested in her work, as she explains a lot about the relationship between physical problems and our thoughts.
It includes the links between guilt and self-punishment, fear, and also all the beautiful aspects of life that make Louise such an inspiring figure.
4. I Am Worthy | Affirmations for Self Esteem and Self-Love
These affirmations are related more to building self-esteem, rather than healing. As well as being incredibly relaxing, the affirmations encourage us to treat ourselves better.
5. 33 Positive Affirmations for Kids Self Esteem
Simple, and well-suited for younger children, these affirmations are set to cheerful music. Uplifting, optimistic, and incredibly easy for kids to get into.
If you still need more quotes to really motivate you, here are some of the best.
“Take positive care of your mind, and it would surely take positive care of your life.”
“I figured that if I said it enough, I would convince the world that I really was the greatest.”
“You’ve been criticizing yourself for years and it hasn’t worked. Try approving of yourself and see what happens.”
“If you want to change the way you feel about yourself, first you have to change the way you think about yourself.”
“We are each responsible for all of our experiences.”
A Take Home Message
Positive affirmations can be a super-refreshing way to use self-talk, to turn around negative internal messages and motivate ourselves instead. Whether you’re seeking a means of coping with anxiety, want to get yourself pumped for something, or just want to be more optimistic in general, try coming up with your own.
Have you got your own affirmations you’d like to share? Or, even better, how do you come up with your own affirmations? Share in the comments, we’d love to hear them!
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- Layous, K., Davis, E. M., Garcia, J., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Cook, J. E., & Cohen, G. L. (2017). Feeling left out, but affirmed: Protecting against the negative effects of low belonging in college. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 227-231.
- Logel, C., & Cohen, G.L. (2012). The role of the self in physical health: Testing the effect of a values-affirmation intervention on weight loss. Psychological Science, 23(1), 53–55
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