Success comes from knowing that you did your best to become the best that you are capable of being. –John Wooden
What good is life coaching? Why do I need someone to tell me how to live my life? How would listening to someone else talk about what they think I should do really help me? Am I not capable of being my best self on my own?
These are some of the questions that many people have been asking themselves and has contributed to a misunderstanding of what life coaching is, how it works, and how it can help people find out what drives them and apply it to create a better and more fulfilling life.
If this description of life coaching sounds like it could benefit just about anybody, it’s because it can. Life coaching is not therapy or counseling, which pairs a mental health professional with a client who may be struggling with an illness or disability.
It’s not mentorship, in which a professional is paired with a more experienced professional. Life coaching is also distinct from a training relationship, where a teacher or trainer agrees to share their knowledge or skills with a client for a short period of time.
Life coaching can help fill in the gaps in our master plans and clarify the path from where we are to where we want to be. It is a partnership between the life coach and the client designed to help the client explore their options, focus on their goals, and create a personalized action plan.
Life coaches do not give their clients a list of boxes to tick or a strict set of steps to follow, rather they aim to help their clients discover their own motives and goals, and aid them in finding the best path towards them.
This article contains:
- Life Coaching History: The Origin of Modern
- Life Coaching Philosophy: The Theories that Drive the Practice
- Life Coaching Basics: The Essentials for Effective Life Coaching
- Life Coaching Accreditation with the International Coaching Federation
- How to Choose the Right Life Coaching Training Course?
- 3 Life Coaching Exercises To Get You Started
- Life Coaching Podcasts
- The Future of Life Coaching
Life Coaching History: The Origin of Modern Coaching
Life coaching may be a relatively new term (PR Newswire, 2012), but the practice has grown out of decades of theories and research in social psychology, clinical psychology, and professional coaching. It has its roots in humanistic and transpersonal psychology, and even draws from Sigmund Freud’s ideas of unconscious motivators and symbolic thinking (Williams, 2012). Here are a few of its influences:
The Influence of Humanistic Psychology
Humanistic psychology views human behavior from a whole-person perspective, trying to understand and explain behavior from the individual’s point of view instead of the observer’s. In this area of psychology, the idea of a coach or mentor giving directions to their client on which path will give them fulfillment would be met with cynicism and perhaps even laughter.
This emphasis on understanding behavior from the individual’s perspective infused the practice and theory of life coaching, encouraging coaches to consider their clients’ thoughts, emotions, and behaviors to be much more important than their own.
Life coaching also drew from humanistic psychology to adopt unconditional positive regard into the coaching relationship (Williams, 2012). In the practice of life coaching, it is essential that coaches give their clients a safe and encouraging space to engage, explore, and grow (Jarosz, 2016).
Contributions of Transpersonal Psychology
Transpersonal psychology is a sub-field of psychology that dares to tread where few psychologists have, in the arena of the spirit or soul. This field of study includes theories and practices that explore self-actualization, development beyond conventional means or measures, and spirituality.
Life coaching draws from the transpersonal psychology perspective, especially in the attempt to help clients achieve wholeness (Williams, 2012). Transpersonal psychology is concerned with human wholeness and integration, the idea of uniting an individual’s different sides or levels of consciousness into a cohesive whole.
Life coaches often help lead their clients towards understanding and reconciling their multiple parts or identities in order to further develop, or become a whole that is “greater than the sum of its parts.”
The Unconscious Mind and Life Coaching
Much of Freud’s understanding of the three different parts of the human psyche is now considered out of date, but his views on the importance of the unconscious mind and symbolic thinking have had a significant influence on the development of life coaching.
Coaches often operate on the idea that each human has a unique talent or potential hidden underneath layers of unconscious belief systems based on personal experience.
While modern life coaches don’t usually see the myriad symbols and the meanings Freud ascribed to them, life coaches operate on the understanding that delving into the symbolic can unlock a client’s greater potential.
Life Coaching Philosophy: The Theories that Drive the Practice
As with any field of study or practice, there are numerous theories about how life coaching delivers results. Life coaching, in particular, contains within its academic borders many theories and ideas from many different disciplines (Williams, 2012).
Covering all of them is far beyond the scope of this article, but there are a few theories that are the main drivers of the field, these are:
Adult Transformational Learning
The transformative learning theory holds that humans form a specific worldview, informed by their experiences, and we use it to understand and interact with our environment (Gloss, 2012). We use frames of reference, containing thought patterns and points of view, to interpret events and assign meaning to the things that happen to us.
These frames of reference are unconscious filters, elicited automatically without conscious thought and inform how we approach the events we are faced within our lives.
This means that if we do not put in the effort to explore our frames of reference and understand our unique, ingrained thought patterns, we are virtually running blind when it comes to learning how to grow and change our habits.
This idea of transformation through the awareness and processing of unconscious thoughts and beliefs is central to the philosophy of life coaching, because it means that if we do not take the time and make the effort to step back and critically examine our own frames of reference, transformative change is nearly impossible to achieve.
After all, what is the point of life coaching if not to achieve transformative positive change?
The theory of emotional intelligence posits that there are multiple types of intelligence beyond the commonly held idea of intelligence as a cognitive resource.
Emotional intelligence is defined as a social intelligence that informs our ability to interact with others, drawing from our own internal understanding of feelings and emotions (Gloss, 2012).
Emotional intelligence includes recognizing and understanding emotions in ourselves and in others, how we use them to inform our thoughts and how we manage our emotional experiences.
Those high in emotional intelligence have a greater handle on identifying and dealing with their own emotions, as well as identifying and considering the emotions of others, while those low in emotional intelligence often don’t stop to think about what they are feeling and then act accordingly, they are also more likely to misread the motives and intentions of others.
Emotional intelligence theory is a widely studied and publicized theory that has influenced virtually all areas of psychological inquiry and informed many professional fields.
In life coaching, emotional intelligence is a vital concept to understand. Coaches frequently use their knowledge of emotional intelligence to help clients identify and understand their emotions, help them learn to manage their emotions, and aid them in using their own emotions as tools rather than seeing them as challenges to be overcome.
Cognitive Behavioral Theory
Cognitive behavioral theory is grounded in behavior theory and cognitive theory and is the foundation of many popular tools used in therapy and counseling. The behavior side is based on the idea that humans learn by connecting an event and its consequence and draws from classic ideas about learning and conditioning (Fazel, 2013).
The cognitive side emphasizes the importance of how we interpret events and how we think about and choose our responses to these events (Gloss, 2012).
The ABC theory is located within this area, a theory that puts forth three factors: the activating event, the behavior that occurs as a result, and the consequences (Gloss, 2012).
Life coaches draw from this theory to help clients change their behavior by learning to understand their thoughts after an activating event, which leads to more favorable behavioral consequences.
Cognitive behavioral theory allows life coaches to pursue one of the main goals of their practice: helping clients identify their unique frames of reference and any potentially problematic beliefs, to think critically about them, and to modify these beliefs to become more adaptive and productive people (Williams, 2012).
Experimental Learning Theory
This theory describes a model of adult learning and development that can be succinctly described as learning by doing (Fazel, 2013). The theory posits that individuals learn through acting and reflecting, thinking abstractly about their actions and the resulting outcomes.
This process is cyclical, in which experience leads to reflection and abstraction, which prompts individuals to experiment with new beliefs or actions, in turn leading to further reflection (Fazel, 2013).
A life coach can facilitate at all levels of this cyclical process, by encouraging clients to reflect on their actions and the consequences, motivating them to try new actions or set new beliefs, and providing support as they explore and grow.
The focus on experience and experimentation makes this theory a good fit for life coaching, since it matches life coaching’s emphasis on the client as the driver of the coaching relationship.
Life Coaching as an Art and a Science
While these theories have had a significant influence on the development and current state of life coaching, not all coaches purposely draw from the literature to inform their practice. Many practitioners view their field as more of an art than a science.
For an example of life coaching as an art form, see the TED talk from Tony Robbins on the lessons he has learned about coaching and what drives humans to do what they do.
Robbins makes some excellent points here, including the acknowledgment that emotions can often drive humans to specific behavior far more effectively than reason.
He paints a picture of a complex and involved process of discovery and transformation with each of his clients, and it is clear that he draws from his own experience as much as, if not even more than, life coaching theories and research.
Life Coaching Basics: The Essentials for Effective Life Coaching
If drawing exclusively from the scientific literature is not always sufficient for effective life coaching, what are the other important factors that determine success?
Assumptions for Effective Life Coaching
First, life coaching operates on a few assumptions that are necessary for a successful coaching endeavor (Jarosz, 2016):
- Clients are, in general, mentally healthy and as a whole do not suffer from mental health issues that obstruct their ability to achieve their goals.
- Clients are not empty receptacles for the coach’s knowledge and experience but are creative, resourceful, adaptive, and whole in and of themselves.
- Clients possess the ability to make changes to their thinking, belief systems, and behaviors, and are able to grow.
Desirable Skills for Effective Life Coaching
As mentioned earlier, unconditional positive regard is an important piece of life coaching. It is one of several skills that make a life coaching session a success including (Jarosz, 2016):
- Making no judgments and no assumptions about the client (aside from the three assumptions listed above).
- Being skilled in active listening and be able to focus on the client.
- Motivating the client by being challenging and empowering, supporting clients by acknowledging their efforts and successes, and holding clients accountable for their actions.
- Being aware that the coaching relationship is dynamic, being ready to adapt and flexible to the client’s changing needs.
Required Components for Life Coaching
Beyond the assumptions and skills that set the stage for a great coaching relationship, there are some factors to life coaching that are absolutely vital for success (Jarosz, 2016):
- The practice of life coaching must acknowledge and encourage what is good in the client and empower them to reach their greatest potential through their greatest strengths.
- Life coaching must occur in a safe and open environment for the client; the coach must create a space where clients feel safe enough to grow.
- Perhaps most important of all, the coach and client must be on equal footing in the relationship, sharing the responsibility for defining and maintaining the coaching relationship.
- Life coaching must be undertaken with a client-centered approach that focuses on the client as an individual with unique needs, strengths, and experience.
- The focus of life coaching must be on the client’s whole self, not just specific pieces of the client’s personality or in only certain spheres of the client’s life.
- As noted earlier, life coaching must be dynamic, as the nature of coaching involves a great deal of change in the client’s circumstances, priorities, and needs.
Characteristics of Successful Life Coaching
While the components listed above are the base requirements for a healthy coaching relationship, there are more characteristics that can take a life coaching relationship from good to great, such as:
- An objective. The coaching process must have an objective, whether it is to help the client find fulfillment, life balance, or to optimize the client’s life to promote learning.
- A goal. Life coaching must operate with a set goal that is realistic, achievable, and measurable.
- A client-centered approach. A great life coaching experience extends this approach to all levels and all interactions, keeping the focus on the changing needs and goals of the client at all times.
- A focus on the present but with a future-oriented mindset. While life coaching must be based on the client’s current circumstances and opportunities, the coaching process must be aware of how current beliefs and behaviors will affect the client’s future and plan for future that is both desirable and attainable for the client.
Benefits of Effective Life Coaching
Researchers have found many potential positive results of life coaching, but some of the most common outcomes include (Jarosz, 2016):
- A stronger sense of identity and purpose for the client.
- The client living the life that they have dreamed about, through enhanced mental health and increased quality of life and goal attainment. This is across a broad range of goals including starting a business, expanding their social life, creating more work/life balance and improving their financial status. Achieved through smart goal setting and better follow-through, self-regulation, enhanced communication and problem-solving skills, and client empowerment with the support of the coach (Green, Oades, & Grant, 2006).
- Positive change in client behavior and beliefs, including improved self-confidence, self-acceptance, and insight into one’s self (Grant, 2008).
- Reduced self-reflection and boosted insight.
- A better quality of life in general, with greater well-being, increased hope and decreased stress (Grant, 2003; Green, Grant, & Rynsaardt, 2007).
In addition to benefits for the client, life coaching is often a fulfilling and positive experience for coaches. Some certified international life coaches report immense satisfaction from watching their clients’ lives change in positive ways.
Coaches gaining fulfillment from the coaching process and the collaborative relationship with their clients, the autonomy and flexibility inherent in their profession, and the sense of successfully applying their skills (Newnham-Kanas, Morrow, & Irwin, 2012).
Life Coaching Accreditation with the International Coaching Federation
As it turns out, anyone with a desire to help others reach their goals and a commitment to effective coaching can become a life coach. However, in order to become a reputable life coach, you must obtain the appropriate certification.
There are many certification programs an aspiring life coach can complete to acquire the necessary skills, and the International Coaching Federation provides the necessary framework to infuse the industry with more rigor and professionalism.
The International Coach Federation evaluates coaching programs and provides institutional and individual accreditation and certification to life coaches and institutions that meet their standards. In a line of work that is attempting to establish itself as a respectable and legitimate profession, organizations such as these provide a much-needed service.
The International Coach Federation offers the “Training Program Search Service”, an advanced search tool which allows aspiring life coaches to search for programs across the world on the basis of their personal preferences.
Along with this service the ICF also certifies aspiring coaches based on three different levels; Associate Certified Coach, Professional Certified Coach, and Master Certified Coach.
Associate Certified Coach
An Associate Certified Coach (ACC) certification is the easiest of the three types to obtain. This certification is aimed towards individuals who have had some coaching experience but have not yet deeply explored the field. An aspiring life coach looking to receive this certification can follow one of two paths:
The ICF ACTP Application Path
Requirements: Completion of Accredited Coach Training Program (ACTP) (offered by the ICF), 2 recommendation letters from certified coaches
Number of Hours: 100 or more hours of direct client coaching
Fee: ranges from $100 to $300
The ICF Portfolio Application Path
For those who do not have the time or money to enroll in an accredited coaching program, becoming certified is still a possibility through submitting a portfolio.
Requirements: 2 letters of recommendation from certified coaches
Hours: 100 or more hours of client coaching, at least 60 hours of training in a coach specific area and 10 hours of work with a Mentor Coach
Fee: Ranges from $100 to $300 + $200 (exam fee)
Professional Certified Coach
The Professional Certified Coach (PCC) certification is one step up and is designed for individuals who have more extensive experience in the field of life coaching and would like to obtain certification that will help them advance more quickly. Similar to the ACC certification, there are two paths for this certification as well:
ICF ACTP Application Path
Requirements:2 letters of recommendation from certified coaches
Number of Hours: 750 client coaching hours
Fee: $300 to $500
The ICF Portfolio Applications
Requirements: A portfolio, 2 letters of recommendation from qualified coaches, 10 hours with a mentor coach
Numbers of hours: 750 client coaching hours, 125 hours of training in specific coaching area
Fee: $100-$300 + $275 (examination fee)
Examination: 3 part exam
Master Certified Coach
A Master Certified Coach (MCC) certification is the highest level that a life coach can obtain.
Requirements: 2 letters of recommendation from certified coaches
Hours: 2500 or more hours of direct client coaching experience, at least 200 hours of coach specific training, 10 hours of training with a qualified Mentor Coach
Fee: $300 to $500 + $275 (examination fee)
Exam: 3 part exam
The road to becoming a certified life coach is often winding and intimidating. However, whether you decide to become an Associate Certified Coach, Professional Certified Coach, or Master Certified Coach, you’re sure to deem the process a rewarding journey.
How to Choose the Right Life Coaching Training Course?
Earning a life-coaching certificate is a simple process but choosing the right one is tedious. Thus, it is imperative to understand thoroughly about what these programs can offer before deciding on a program.
These 9 questions can help you make the right course choice:
- What are you considering when choosing a program- Cost, duration, distance vs. onsite, time commitment?
- Is the program accredited?
- Are the faculty members within the program certified?
- What is the program’s philosophy?
- What area of coaching does the program specialize in?
- Do you agree with the approach the program takes to coaching?
- Does it align well with your values?
- Is the coaching curriculum evidence-based?
- Is the program ethical?
- Does the program provide opportunities for practice?
The best courses will offer plenty of chances for you to implement the skills learned, and this coupled with regular supervision and critical feedback will help you build the coaching skills you need to become a successful, accredited life coach.
3 Life Coaching Exercises To Get You Started
With the popularity of life coaching on the rise, it’s not hard to see the benefits that coaching has on our personal and professional lives. In this section, we offer a set 3 life coaching exercises which can start you off on your coaching journey or help kick start your own personal transformation.
“Coaching is unlocking a person’s potential to maximize their own performance. It’s helping them to learn rather than teaching them.”
– Timothy Gallwey
1.The Wheel of Life
The Wheel of Life is a common starting point in a life coaching process. It’s an assessment tool that uses a visual representation of the level of satisfaction one has in all the different areas of life. It is also helpful in identifying areas where goals can be set.
Get the full instructions on how to use this tool with a free PDF here.
2. Signature Strengths Exercise
The Values in Action Signature Strengths Survey is an evidence-based approach to beginning any strengths-based intervention. Through identifying the areas of greatest skill and competence for yourself or your clients you can begin to recognize in which ways these could be further utilized or expanded on to drive positive change and growth.
Character Strengths are “the positive parts of your personality that impact how you think, feel, behave and are the keys to you being your best self” (VIA, 2016).
Effective use of strengths provides a buffer for managing problems, and results in enhanced well-being and improved relationships (VIA, 2016). It can also aid in developing a sense of self-efficacy which in turn builds resilience.
The exercise is first to identify signature strengths, then learn how to implement them into new situations and record the results. This part of the exercises to is key to identifying what worked and what didn’t, providing a paper trail which allows further self-reflection and learning.
Learn more about the paradigm shift from problem-based to strengths-based with this free PDF by Resiliency Initiative. The Simplicity of Life Coaching website also offers some tools for successful life coaching.
3. The Life Map
This tool helps identify behaviors which are harmful or helpful in reaching your goals.
The exercise works as follows:
Pick a day and register everything you do in that day:
- On a piece of paper draw a table with 5 columns.
- Write A (for activity) on the first column, and briefly describe the activity below.
- In the second column write M (for magical moments). For each activity write down whether you experienced any magical moments? Below you’ll either put an X for no, or a check mark for yes.
- In the third column write A (for absorbing activities). Now consider whether or not each activity allowed you to fully engage and concentrate completely on it.
- In the fourth column write P (for purposeful projects) and reflect on whether the activity allows for the development of purposeful projects. Again write an X if it doesn’t and a check mark if it does.
- Finally, in the last column write M/L (for more or less). Now decide if you would like to do more or less of each activity.
This way of recording the day’s activities can help in bringing awareness to the activities one performs and how they enable or obstruct purposeful projects, thus empowering one to make a shift towards those activities which are the most positive, engaging and meaningful.
Life Coaching Podcasts
For more information on the practice of life coaching and tools that you can use in your own life, check out the excellent podcasts by the Life Coach School and the wealth of information at the School of Coaching Mastery Blog.
The Future of Life Coaching
As a $2 billion dollar industry with around 50,000 practicing life coaches worldwide, life coaching is a bustling and varied practice (Jarosz, 2012). With so many different practitioners, styles of coaching, and courses there are many ideas out there about where the field should go next.
Some researchers in this area believe life coaching needs to settle on a more unified definition and approach (Jarosz, 2012), while others are more concerned with strengthening the theories behind life coaching with more empirical research (Fazel, 2013; Grant, 2008).
Some life coaching professionals are concerned with expanding life coaching to reach more people in more realms of life through family life coaching (Allen, 2013) or health and lifestyle coaching (Venditti, Wylie-Rosett, Delahanty, Mele, Hoskin, & Edelstein, 2014).
Meanwhile, more colleges and universities are seeing the signs of a healthy future for life coaching, and offering programs and courses focused on the field (“Inside the Coaching Industry”, 2015).
No matter the future, life coaching has found an appropriate home with positive psychology with its focus on strengths instead of weaknesses and the assumption of ability instead of disability. The outlook is looking good for this growing field, and it seems that society is reaping the benefits.
The great thing in the world is not so much where we stand as in what direction we are moving. –Oliver Wendell Holmes
Motivation and Goal Setting
“A small body of determined spirits fired by an unquenchable faith in their mission can alter the course of history.”
– Mahatma Gandhi
For some clients, focusing on a goal is all it takes to become motivated to achieve it. For others, however, self-determination does not come as easily. In fact, according to Eric Barker of Time magazine, motivation plays a larger role in the success of an endeavour than knowledge and money (Time Magazine, 2014).
In many situations, people believe that rewards are the best source of motivation. Unfortunately, rewards only work temporarily as recipients can begin to believe that they must earn a reward to continue being motivated, or they may feel that the reward is not good enough for the work that has been done (Barker, 2014).
Progress itself, along with positive emotion and a mentality geared toward the goal are proven and sustainable positive motivators over time. MindTools provides some excellent guidelines for setting attainable goals.
Make it Habit
“We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit.”
One incredibly vital lesson you can learn and impart onto your clients is that positive behavioural change does not happen overnight. In order to make progress, takes practice and perseverance towards the goal, taking one day at a time.
RN Central lists one hundred simple ways to encourage positivity. From suggestions like a workout or reading a book to spending more time with people who motivate you and make you happy, the article provides a wide ideas which can inspire new habits for positive change.
For the Love of Learning
“Never stop learning, because life never stops teaching.”
There are always going to be new exercises, recent studies and approaches on the cutting edge and staying on top of them is the challenge of every professional, new or seasoned.
Life Coach Rachel Spencer offers her advice on how to stay in the know:
- Use social media- follow other life coaches, institutions or assocations
- Subscribe to websites, academic journals or blogs which will keep you informed with regular updates, Coaching Toward Happiness is one example.
- Access the Free Management Library for links and articles to gain even more knowledge about the best ways to help your clients.
Stick to it
“Many of life’s failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up.”
-Thomas A. Edison
You may feel like nothing has worked for your client so far. You’ve tried exercises, goal-setting, team-building, but your client isn’t seeing much progress. Don’t give up, you never know whether you and your client are on the brink of success!
Studies have shown that life coaching really does work, despite the apprehensive doubt in its beginning stages. By combining several facets of psychology with a personalized approach for active listening, life coaching has the capacity to generate results.
Mark, the subject in a study by Biswas-Diener, successfully changed his attitude and stress level about his new work position in just ten sessions with his life coach (2009). This was possible with the VIA Character Survey, with which your client can become of what assets are already present ready to be cultivated. Working from strengths gives you a good foundation on which to build.
“The final forming of a person’s character lies in their own hands.”
– Anne Frank
As a life coach, you are training or preparing your client for success in life, but his or her success is ultimately dependent upon individual drive and perseverence. You can train your clients to the best of your ability and their capacity, read the latest studies, and follow the newest procedures, but the end result is based on the motivation of your client, and the true skill is in recognising when to pull back and give your client the space to learn and grow not longer needing your support.
What do you think about life coaching? Do you think there have been other influences on the movement? What are your favourite life coaching exercises? Let us know in the comments box below.
About the Authors
Courtney Ackerman is a graduate of the positive organizational psychology and evaluation program at Claremont Graduate University. She is currently working as a researcher for the State of California and her professional interests include survey research, well-being in the workplace, and compassion.
Emily Schultz is a 26 years old psychologist. She works in special education and is interested in English and writing.
Lexis Clark is a Graduate Student at the University of Kentucky working towards her Master’s degree in Counseling Psychology. She aims to use the therapeutic skills learned in her program to facilitate the development of positive mindsets in clinical populations.
Heather Sodowsky is a graduate student at American Military University, currently holding a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology. She is an avid learner and aspires to be a teacher and writer. She is the mother of son and two bonus daughters. In her spare time, she enjoys reading, playing softball, and spending time with her family.
All About Personal and Professional Coaching. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2016, from http://managementhelp.org/leadingpeople/coaching.htm
Barker, E. (2014, April 8). How to Motivate People: 4 Steps Backed by Science. Time. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from http://time.com/53748/how-to-motivate-people-4-steps-backed-by-science/
Biswas-Diener, R. (2009, May). “Personal coaching as a positive intervention.” Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 544-553. doi:10.1002/jclp.20589
Coaching Toward Happiness. (2010). Retrieved October 11, 2016, from http://www.coachingtowardhappiness.com/
Golden Rules of Goal Setting: Five Rules to Set Yourself Up for Success. (2016). Retrieved October 11, 2016, from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_90.htm
Spencer, R. (2016, October 11). Life Coaching [E-mail interview].
Allen, K. (2013). A framework for family life coaching. International Coaching Psychology Review, 8, 72-79.
Fazel, P. (2013). Learning theories within coaching process. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 7, 2243-2349.
Gloss, E. J. (2012). A hint of this and a pinch of that: Theories that inform coaching and consulting. Graduate Studies Journal of Organizational Dynamics, 2.
Grant, A. M. (2003). The impact of life coaching on goal attainment, metacognition and mental health. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 31, 253-263. doi:10.2224/sbp.2003.3.253
Grant, A. M. (2008). Personal life coaching for coaches-in-training enhances goal attainment, insight and learning. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 1, 54-70. doi:10.1080/17521880701878141
Green, S., Grant, A., & Rynsaardt, J. (2007). Evidence-based life coaching for senior high school students: Building hardiness and hope. International Coaching Psychology Review, 2, 24-32.
Green, L. S., Oades, L. G., & Grant, A. M. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral, solution-focused life coaching: Enhancing goal striving, well-being, and hope. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 142-149. doi:10.1080/17439760600619849
Griffiths, K., & Campbell, M. A. (2008). Semantics or substance? Preliminary evidence in the debate between life coaching and counselling. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 1, 164-175. doi:10.1080/17521880802328095
International Coaching Federation. What is professional coaching? Retrieved here.
Inside the Coaching Industry. (2015, September). Success. Retrieved from www.success.com/mobile/article/inside-the-coaching-industry
Jarosz, J. (2016). What is life-coaching? An integrative review of the evidence-based literature. Internal Journal of Evidence Based Coaching & Mentoring, 14, 34-56.
Kucharz, L.M. (2015). Inside the Positive Psychology Coaching Toolbox. Retrieved here.
Leo, C. (2011). What is life coaching? Retrieved here.
Newnham-Kanas, C., Morrow, D., & Irwin, J. D. (2012). Certified Professional Co-Active Coaches: Why They Enjoy Coaching. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 10, 48-56.
Pagliarini, R. (2011). Top 10 professional life coaching myths. Retried here.
PR Newswire. (08/17/2012). ‘Life Coach’ added to Merriam-Webster Dictionary. PR Newswire US. Item # 201208171613PR.NEWS.USPR.PH59349
Robbins, T. (2006, February). Tony Robbins: Why we do what we do [Video file]. Retrieved from
Simplicity Life Coaching, Ltd. (2015). Free Coaching Tools and Resources. Retrieved from https://www.thecoachingtoolscompany.com/free_coaching_tools/
Stewart, J. (2014). Positive Psychology Coaching: 10 Amazing Discoveries About Gratitude. Retrieved here.
Stewart, J. (2014). Coaching Blog. Retrieved from http://www.schoolofcoachingmastery.com/coaching-blog/
The Life Coach School. (2017). The Life Coach School Podcast. Retrieved from https://thelifecoachschool.com/category/podcasts/
Venditti, E. M., Wylie-Rosett, J., Delahanty, L. M., Mele, L., Hoskin, M. A., & Edelstein, S. L. (2014). Short and long-term lifestyle coaching approaches used to address diverse participant barriers to weight loss and physical activity adherence. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-16
Williams, P. (2012). Looking back to see the future: The influence of humanistic and transpersonal psychology on coaching psychology today. International Coaching Psychology Review, 7, 223-236.